Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics > Science and Mathematics

Projected Growth: Slower than average

Projected Job Openings

Extensive Preparation Needed

Job Description

Your job is to Study the nature and use of areas of the Earth’s surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena. Conduct research on physical aspects of a region, including land forms, climates, soils, plants, and animals, and conduct research on the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including social characteristics, economic activities, and political organization, as well as researching interdependence between regions at scales ranging from local to global.

Common job titles of Geographers include:

Experience and Education

Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.

  • 43.48% said they needed a Bachelor's Degree.

  • 34.78% said they needed a Master's Degree.


    Teach geography.

    Analyze geographic distributions of physical and cultural phenomena on local, regional, continental, or global scales.

    Gather and compile geographic data from sources including censuses, field observations, satellite imagery, aerial photographs, and existing maps.

    Create and modify maps, graphs, or diagrams, using geographical information software and related equipment, and principles of cartography, such as coordinate systems, longitude, latitude, elevation, topography, and map scales.

    Study the economic, political, and cultural characteristics of a specific region's population.

    Locate and obtain existing geographic information databases.

    Develop, operate, and maintain geographical information computer systems, including hardware, software, plotters, digitizers, printers, and video cameras.

    Write and present reports of research findings.

    Collect data on physical characteristics of specified areas, such as geological formations, climates, and vegetation, using surveying or meteorological equipment.

    Conduct field work at outdoor sites.

    Provide geographical information systems support to the private and public sectors.

    Provide consulting services in fields such as resource development and management, business location and market area analysis, environmental hazards, regional cultural history, and urban social planning.


X ray diffractometers

X ray diffraction equipment

Wind direction sensors

Water samplers

Water current meters

Video microscopes

Video cameras

All Tools

Ultrasonic sieving systems

Turbidity probes

Truck-mounted drilling rigs

Tree increment borers

Total stations

Total dissolved solids TDS meters


Temperature sensors

Tablet computers

Survey altimeters

Submersible pressure sensors

Stereographic microscopes

Stereo zoom microscopes

Stereo light microscopes

Spinner magnetometers

Sonic sifters

Sonic anemometers

Soil samplers

Soil moisture meters

Soil mixers

Sieve shakers

Seismic stations

Sediment traps

Sediment samplers

Sediment coring equipment

Scanning electron microscopes SEM

Sample storage refrigerators

Salinity meters

Russian corers

Rock saws

Research motorboats

Pressure plate apparatus

Powered vibracorers

Powered rock-coring drills

Portable weather stations

Portable fume hoods

Portable data collectors

Polarizing microscopes


Photosynthetically active radiation PAR meters

Phase contrast microscopes

pH analyzers

Petrographic microscopes

Personal digital assistants PDA

Personal computers

Optical comparators

Muffle furnaces

Mechanical current meters


Livingstone corers

Laser particle sizers

Laser levels

Large format printers

Laptop computers

Laboratory sample splitters

Laboratory dropping pipettes

Laboratory analytical balances

Ion chromatographs

Infrared IR thermometers


Humidity sensors

Hiller corers

High-speed centrifuges

High temperature laboratory box furnaces

Handheld data loggers

Ground penetrating radar GPR

Gravity convection ovens

Grab samplers

Global positioning system GPS receivers

Gas-mixing furnaces

Fume hoods

Four wheel drive 4WD vehicles

Flow meters

Flatbed scanners

Electronic precision balances

Electromagnetic current meters

Dutch augers

Drying ovens

Dissolved oxygen meters


Digital video cameras

Digital imaging microscopes

Digital cameras

Desktop computers

Demagnetizing equipment


Crosscut saws

Conductivity meters

Compaction meters

Chain saws

Cathodoluminescence microscopes

Automatic levels

Atomic emission spectroscopes


All terrain vehicles ATV

Abney levels


ESRI ArcGIS software

Geographic information system GIS software

IBM SPSS Statistics

ACD Systems Canvas

Adobe Systems Adobe Dreamweaver

Caliper Maptitude

Clark Labs IDRISI Andes

All Technologies

Corel CorelDraw Graphics Suite


ESRI ArcView

Geographic resources analysis support system GRASS

Golden Software Grapher

Golden Software Surfer

Groundwater Vistas


ITT Visual Information Solutions ENVI

Leica Geosystems ERDAS IMAGINE

Lemkesoft GraphicConverter

MapInfo MapMarker

Martin D Adamiker’s TruFlite


Pattern searching software


Scientific Software Group RIVERMorph

Systat Software SigmaPlot

Trimble Pathfinder Office

Wolfram Research Mathematica


Reading Comprehension

Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.


Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.


Talking to others to convey information effectively.

Active Listening

Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.

Critical Thinking

Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.

Active Learning

Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.

Judgment and Decision Making

Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.


Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.

Complex Problem Solving

Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.

Systems Analysis

Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.

Learning Strategies

Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.


Teaching others how to do something.


Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.

Social Perceptiveness

Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.


Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions.

Service Orientation

Actively looking for ways to help people.

Systems Evaluation

Identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system.

Time Management

Managing one's own time and the time of others.


Listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.

Cognitive Abilities › Verbal Abilities › Oral Comprehension

Read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.

Cognitive Abilities › Verbal Abilities › Written Comprehension

Communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.

Cognitive Abilities › Verbal Abilities › Oral Expression

Communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.

Cognitive Abilities › Verbal Abilities › Written Expression

Apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.

Cognitive Abilities › Idea Generation and Reasoning Abilities › Deductive Reasoning

Combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).

Cognitive Abilities › Idea Generation and Reasoning Abilities › Inductive Reasoning

Speak clearly so others can understand you.

Auditory and Speech Abilities › Sensory Abilities › Speech Clarity

Generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.

Cognitive Abilities › Idea Generation and Reasoning Abilities › Category Flexibility

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